General Heart Problems and Its Management

Q: What is Heart Disease?

A: Heart disease is a term that includes several more specific heart conditions. The most common heart disease is coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle become hardened and narrowed due to the buildup of plaque. The narrowing and buildup of plaques is called atherosclerosis. Plaques are a mixture of fatty and other substances including cholesterol and other lipids. Blood flow to the heart is reduced, which reduces oxygen to the heart muscle. This can lead to heart attack. Other heart conditions include angina, heart failure, and arrhythmias.

Q: What are symptoms of heart attack?

A: Chest discomfort. Most heart attacks involve discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts for more than a few minutes, or goes away and comes back. The discomfort can feel like uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness, or pain.

Discomfort in other areas of the upper body. This can include pain or discomfort in one or both arms, the back, neck, jaw, or stomach.

Shortness of breath. This often comes along with chest discomfort. But it also can occur before chest discomfort.

Other symptoms. These may include breaking out in a cold sweat or experiencing nausea or light–headedness.

Q: Why is there a need to act fast?

A: Death or permanent disability can result from a heart attack. The risk of death or permanent damage can be reduced with timely treatment. Some newer treatments need to be given soon after the onset of a heart attack in order to be effective. It is important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and act right away.

Q: What are the risk factors for heart disease?

A: Some conditions as well as some lifestyle factors can put people at a higher risk for heart disease. The most important risk factors for heart disease are high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, cigarette smoking, diabetes, and obesity. In principle, all persons can take steps to lower their risk for heart disease.

Q: What can you do to reduce your risk?

A: Persons can take steps to lower their risk of developing heart disease by preventing or treating and controlling high blood pressure, preventing or treating and controlling high blood cholesterol, by not using tobacco, by preventing or controlling diabetes, and by maintaining adequate physical activity, weight, and nutrition. Persons being treated for conditions or risk factors should follow the guidance of their health care providers.