Other Risk Factors for Cornary Artery Disease
Hypertension ( High Blood Pressure )
Hypertension is the medical term used to describe an elevated resting blood pressure. If the blood pressure is too high over an extended period of time, the arteries will be damaged. The detrimental effects usually take years to become apparent and by that time the consequence may be irreversible. Many studies have identified hypertension as a leading risk factor in heart attacks, it is also the major case of stroke. Home monitoring of blood pressure is useful for both patient and physician. By keeping track of daily or weekly changes in blood pressure, you can help your doctor determine weather you should take medication to lower it or if the drugs you are taking are working. Often blood pressure readings in doctor’s clinic will be higher than those taken at home. Once a patient has learned to monitor his or her own blood pressure, it may not be necessary to make repeated trips to doctor’s clinic simply for a blood pressure measurement.
Diabetes is well known independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In patients with Diabetes Mellitus, Cardiovascular disease causes approximately 70% of all deaths. According to population – based surveys in the United States, while diabetic adults patients have an aged adjusted prevalence of 45% for Coronary Artery Disease, whereas their non diabetic counter parts have a prevalence of 25% in India, westernization has increased the risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome and overall risk of diabetes is 4 times more in urban than rural areas.
People with poorly controlled diabetes tend to have a wide range of related complication, including high blood lipids, coronary disease and other circulatory disease affecting both the large arteries (e.g. Anteriosclerosis ) and the microcirculation, leading to hemorrhages of the tiny blood vessels in the eye and diminished circulation to extremities especially the feet. Most diabetes experts believe the risk of these complications can be diminished by maintaining normal levels of blood sugar. This requires careful attention to diet and exercise and in patients who require insulin an anti diabetic drugs, careful self-monitoring to ensure the proper dosages.
People often without any cardiac symptoms like chest pain on exertion, breathlessness, palpitation may suffer a heart attack and to identify such asymptomatic individuals with underlying coronary artery disease, few cardiac screening tests are recommended such as blood lipid profile. Fasting blood sugar, echo-cardiogram & treadmill test. These have to be done at regular intervals to help identify the potential risk of cardiovascular disease prematurely that it can be prevented taking adequate measures.
Tips to Promote Cardiovascilar Health
- Eat healthy food.
- Exercise regularly.
- Check your habits : No smoking, no tobacco in any form, drink tea & coffee in moderation.
- Avoid stress as far as possible, have a positive attitude towards life. Pursue your hobbies, try relaxations & medications.
- Have regular cardiac check-ups after the age of 40. those with a family history of cardiac ailment at a young age should do so earlier.
Reference: The British Heart Foundation.